CIMUN 2009 Security Council Nigeria
Topic One: On the Democratic Republic of the Congo – White Paper
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is in a turning point in their history. The coming months, together with this Council’s decisions, will determine the success of the Congolese in securing for themselves the stability, peace, and prosperity all peoples are entitled to. The current climate speaks of bright progress, but the realities speak of a different state. If the Democratic Republic of the Congo is to be successful, we must supply them with all the assistance fully mandated by international law and reaffirm our intent to continue to work in conjunction with the Congolese government in orchestrating programs for their common goals.
Based on the most recent Interim Report of the Working Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (S/2010/252), the Democratic Republic of the Congo is making significant, albeit slow progress in securing their domestic stability. Despite political advances, such as the scheduling of national elections in 2011 and efforts to integrate rebel forces into the national arena, political turbulence in the nation is still rampant for governmental efforts are running greatly behind schedule. Outbreaks of violence along the countryside is common, and foreign armed forces, such as the Forces Démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR), Ralliement pour l'Unité et la Démocratie (RUD), and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) continue to pose a threat to the security of populations in the provinces of Kivu, Maniema, and Orientale Province-all areas familiar with lawlessness. The presence of these foreign forces in sovereign territory is a flagrant violation of international law and territorial sovereignty and we call for the removal of these forces immediately.
We fully believe in the establishment of peace and security through means authorized by international law. In line with their responsibilities, the Council, through the ratification of Resolutions 1493 (2003) and 1649 (2005), established a comprehensive arms embargo with sanctions aimed at individuals found to be in violation of its stipulations. Furthermore, the bureaucratic framework established by Resolution 1533 (2004) established the Working Group on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a most useful tool in the political stabilization of the country. While we recognize the great efforts made by the Council in its provision of solutions, we would like to see Africa play a greater role in her affairs.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria, in the past, has argued for policies that delegate African responsibilities to regional African bodies, and the Council has acted in line with this view point, further establishing the precedence of large African forces in Africa, through their support of African Union peace keeping forces. While we believe that it is the right of a continent to secure for itself the rights to stability and peace, we also believe that regional authorities, such as the African Union and her forces, must be further legitimized with all forms of aid and support. As a nation heavily concerned with the progress of Africa, we have supplied the United Nations and the African Union with large amount of military and technical support. We call on other nations to join us in our efforts to enable the Democratic Republic of the Congo in protecting her own security.
As it is applied in the maintenance of regional peace and security, a pro-African policy, we believe, allows for only African troops on African soil. Over the years of the conflict, the Council has repeatedly shifted responsibility of the matter to the African Union rather than bear the responsibility of the bloodshed itself. In line with legal precedence and with the rights of a continent to secure its own peace for itself, the Federal Republic of Nigeria calls for strengthened support for African Union forces. We thank the Council’s assistance on the matter. The establishment of various embargoes and sanctions, through ratification of core Resolutions 1493, 1596, and 1698, has helped efforts to curb the military aspect of the conflict.
Fellow delegates, this moment in time is a defining moment for the Congolese people. If we are to secure the rights enumerated in the Declaration of Human Rights and uphold the Charter of the United Nations, we must assist in the security and stability of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We express our hopes for international cooperation and look forward to working in conjunction with the Council.
The situation in the Republic of Sudan continues to be a matter of deep concern for the Federal Republic of Nigeria. While we reaffirm our commitments to cooperation with the Sudanese government, her people, and to the international community, we are deeply concerned of the effects relatively recent political developments have upon the fragile state of the nation. Until now, the UN Missions in Sudan (UNMIS) reports of difficulties in accessing areas deeply requiring humanitarian aid, unable to stop the growing humanitarian crisis in critical zones. We warn the Council of the adverse political effects its actions have and calls upon all members to focus on the resolution of the problem rather than incite political turmoil.
According to the most recent report of the Secretary General on the African Union- United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur, dated July 14th, 2010 (S/2010/382), the agreements stipulated in the Framework and Ceasefire Agreements between the Government and the Liberation Justice Movement (LJM) were suspended due to government withdrawal of delegations in the mediation process. The lack of respect relevant parties have to the rule of law and the legalities of the treaties they have signed constitutes a growing problem in all UN actions in Sudan. The growing sense of impunity and regard for the legal systems make it difficult to stabilize the nation. While we do not view favorably upon an expanded involvement by the Council, and indeed the United Nations, we call for a strengthening of already existing mechanisms in place. The United Nations Missions in Sudan is favorably positioned, along with the African Union, UNAMID, and the hybrid AU-UN operation to assist the government of the Republic of Sudan and must be further legitimized. During the past year, the security situation in Darfur has not changed. UNAMID reports of 8832 cases of violent fatalities, with numerous gender- and sexually-based crimes. This unacceptable consistency of violence must be stopped.
Numerous reports of armed men in military uniform perpetrating crimes exist, displaying the lack of discipline within the ranks of government- and rebel-forces. We call for increased technical support to relevant government forces to improve the combat discipline of their soldiers. The strengthening and legitimization of existing international forces in the Republic of Sudan are necessary to maintaining stability. An expansion of forces, we believe, would overextend the Council beyond its means.